2D   -   Object or drawing showing or having two dimensions, so that the object or drawing is lacking depth.

3D   -   3D - Object or drawing showing or having three dimensions, so that the object or drawing is showing a depth dimension.

AISI   -   Acronym for American Iron and Steel Institute.

ASTM   -   American Standard of Testing and Materials.

Axisymmetric   -   Deformation models require that the deforming geometry be symmetric around a central axis.

Axisymmetric drawing   -   The drawing of shapes having an axis of symmetry such as cones and round cups.

Bendability   -   It is defined as the minimum bending radius attainable by a given material.

Bending   -   A term typically applied to a metal forming process. It is the creation of a formed feature by angular displacement of a sheet metal workpiece.

Billet   -   Billet is the product obtained from a further reduction by hot rolling, (cross sectional area > 40x40 mm2).

Figure: 1 - Billet

Blanking   -   The operation of punching, cutting, or shearing a piece out of stock to a predetermined shape. The article punch out is called blank.

Blocking   -   Another coating defect consisting of the adhesion of two adjoining coatings or materials. Usually this term refers to the coating on one side of coated plate being tacky or sticky and adhering to the adjacent sheet.

Bloom   -   Bloom is the product of first breakdown of ingot (cross sectional area > 230 cm2).

Figure: 2 - Bloom

Bolster plate   -   That plate to which dies can be fastened so the assembly is secured to the top surface of a press bed.

Bottoming   -   Forming operation in which the punch and the die are closed completely on the workpiece.

Buckling   -   An uncontrolled deformation pattern perpendicular to the surface of a sheet caused by compressive stresses.

Bulging   -   The process of increasing the diameter of a cylindrical shell (usually to a spherical shape) or of expanding the outer walls of any shell or box shape whose walls were previously straight.

Closed-die   -   A tool that creates a work-shape-imposing orifice, cavity, or passageway.

Coining   -   A compressive metal flowing action. A closed-die squeezing operation in which all surfaces of a workpiece are confined or restrained, resulting in a well-defined imprint of the die on the work.

Cold heading   -   The process of upsetting the ends of a bar, wires, or tube stock while cold.

Cold rolled   -   Rolling metal at a temperature below the recrystallization temperature point of the metal to create strain hardening (work-hardening).