PURPOSE The purpose of upsetting is to reduce the height of a billet while increasing its diameter. Thus, the desired material distribution, the desired geometry and size
are achieved. In hot forging, upsetting is also used to break scale from the surface of a heated billet. In cold, warm and hot forging the upset billet is usually used for subsequent forging operations
The following pages represent some typical forming simulations as well as a typical upset forging process in a hydraulic press. A clear understanding of the metal forming process is important to interpret the simulation results.
Therefore a few variables and a graph of the simulation stages will be presented to clarify the overall forming process.
A TYPICAL UPSET FORGING PROCESS WITH FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION